Time Line

400 to 1400: The Middle Ages.

1300 to 1700: The Renaissance.

1500 to 1700: Baroque Period.

1600 to 1700: Age of Enlightenment

1298: The Scottish Patriot, Sir William Wallace, fought the Battle of Falkirk July 22, 1298 and was defeated by the English under King Edward due to the treachery of some of the Scottish Barons (Downie). Family recollections (Downie) say that the Scotch Settlement pioneering Wallace clan were related to William Wallace's brother.

1500's: In the early 1500's, European nations were pressing westward in North America with ever increasing determination. Explorers were searching for a northwest passage, a colonial claims race was intensifying, missionaries were determined to convert heathen populations, business men were pursuing opportunities in undeveloped areas, farmers were hungry for fertile, inexpensive land, mineral wealth was waiting to be discovered, and natural resources like wood were in demand. Transportation was slow and dangerous but it was available and active. In the early 1500's, one thousand vessels a year were fishing off the coast of North America and returning with their catch to Europe.

1534: New France (French: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River, by Jacques Cartier in 1534, to the cession of New France to Spain and Britain in 1763.

1600's: French explorers came to North America, mostly to Canada. They were responsible for the earliest written records and their documents established the beginning of the historical era for North America. The French were the first Europeans to see Michigan. They were exploring Michigan about the same time the Pilgrims were landing in New England. From the early 1600's until the end of the 1700's, the French and the English established a fur trade that created an inter-dependency between them and the Indians.

1712: At its peak in 1712 (before the Treaty of Utrecht), the territory of New France extended from Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains and from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico.

1760-1796: the British flag flew over “Michigan”. It was part of Canada- an area called Quebec. The land was dominated by Indians; the British held isolated outposts.

1774: British parliament passed the Quebec act extending the boundaries of the province of Quebec west to the Mississippi and South to the Ohio River.

1762: John Morton married Ann Wilson, March 5, 1762 in Craigie, Ayrshire, Scotland. They lived at Hightree (estate, manor) in Craigie.

1763: New France is dissolved and transferred to Spain and Britain.

1774: Neil Gray is born about 1774 (75?) in Scotland. He is the father of Scotch Settlement pioneer Neil Gray, M.D.

1776: Mary Gray was born about 1776 in Scotland.
American revolution; declaration of Independence.

1784: Northwest Ordinance: Established ten future states. One of these states was to be Michigania (became Wisconsin). The Ordinance of 1784 was not implemented; it was superseded by the act of 1787.

1785: Land ordinance of 1785: Established how the territories were to be surveyed and platted. Surveying had to be done before sale of land. Township size was to be uniformly six miles square with 36 sections one mile square. Land would be sold at auction with a minimum price of one dollar an acre. Buyers had to purchase at least 640 acres. Section 16 of each township was reserved for schools. “Although some modifications were made later, the Ordinance of 1785 established the policy followed by the United States government for the disposal of virtually all its lands in the West, including those in Michigan.” (Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State”).

1787: Land Ordinance of 1787: Set the boundaries of new states. It established three stages of development to reach statehood; and it set forth rights of the people who settled the new regions. Territories could only become states when their population (free inhabitants) reached sixty thousand.

1783-1805: Northwest Territory formed; essentially a colony of the United States.

1789 to 1797: George Washington was President of the United States.

1795: Robert Crawford is born August 4, 1795 (96?) in Scotland.

1797 to 1801: John Adams was president of the United Sates.

1800: Washington DC becomes the capital of the United States.

All the lands in “Michigan” are occupied by Indian tribes (Chippewa, Huron, Miami, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Menominee); there are no permanent pioneer settlements.

1801 to 1809: Thomas Jefferson was president of the United States.

1802: Mary Wylie is born in Scotland (wife of Neil Gray senior).

1803: Neil Gray, M.D. is born in Kilwinning, Ayrshire January 2, 1803.
Louisiana Purchase doubles the size of the United States.

1804 to 1806: Louis and Clark journey across the new United States.

1805: Christian Cockrane is born about 1805, Scotland.
Detroit is destroyed by fire.

1806: Hugh Gray is born in Scotland.
James G. Muir is born in Glasgow.

1809 to 1817: James Madison was president of the United States.

1809: Charles Darwin is born.

1810: Daniel Cockimer is born about 1810 in Scotland.
Population of settlers in Michigan is 4,762.

1812: War of 1812 begins.
Hugh Gray is born about 1810 in Scotland 1814.
War of 1812 ends.

1815: Emma Gray is born about 1815 in Connecticut.

1817: Detroit Gazette begins publishing July 25 (to 1830).
James Monroe was president of the United States 1817-1825.

1818: Alexander Braidwood is born in Ayrshire, Scotland January 19, 1818.
July 6, 1818: The sale of land starts in Michigan with an auction in Detroit; first land office opened. First steam ship on lake Erie.

1819: Treaty of Saginaw signed
U.S. acquires Florida from Spain.

1820: Robert Gray is born about 1820 in Scotland.
Population of settlers in Michigan is 8,896.

1821: First Protestant Society of Detroit formed.

1822: John Cledidall is born in about 1822 in Scotland.
Second steamboat arrives on lake Erie.

1824: Old Uncle Wilson, "a lone, taciturn, well-read, intelligent Scotchman, settled in Washington Township, Macomb County in 1824."
The population of Chicago is nine persons.

1825: Erie Canal completed.
John Quincy Adams was president of the U.S. 1825-1829.

1826: Thomas Borland (the second) is born in Craigie Parish, Ayrshire, Scotland, October 15, 1826.

1827: James Crawford, son of Robert Crawford (1795), is born in Ayrshire, Scotland, June 24, 1827.
Neil Gray and Mary Wylie came to New York in 1827 with their sons
The town of Almont is first settled by James Deneen

1828: Mary Milliken is born in Ayrshire March 17, 1828
First purchase of land in Almont Township by Lydia Chamberlin

1829: Ellen Crawford is born about 1829 in Scotland.
First birth among white settlers in Lapeer County; Anna Deneen (daughter of James).
Elizabeth Borland is born July 3, 1829 in Riccarton, Ayrshire, Scotland.
Andrew Jackson was President 1829 to 1832.

Before 1830: Crawford and Wylie families, and David Taylor are in Macomb County before the Scottish Settlement is labeled as such.

1830: "In the year 1830 or 1831, the portion of the township known as the "Scotch Settlement" began to be occupied.
Chestine Cockimer is born about 1830 Scotland.
Dr. Neil Gray graduated in 1830 from Glasgow Medical College.
Village of Romeo, Michigan platted.
Indian Removal Act forces Indians west of the Mississippi.
The first wagon trains cross over the Rocky Mountains and enter California.
Detroit Free Press established.

1831: Elizabeth (Borland) and James Crawford came to the New York on 21 June 1831 with their son Robert Crawford.
Neil Gray, M.D. came to America in 1831.
200,000 people emigrate from Ireland to either Canada of the United States.
Charles Darwin Sails on the HMS Beagle.
Slave revolts occur in Virginia and Jamaica.

1832: Settlers form the town of Bruce, naming it after Scottish King, Robert the Bruce.

1833: James Thompson comes to the settlement.
Daniel Black moves to Michigan from Genesee Co., New York; builds first house in Almont.
Nathaniel Smith comes to Almont.
Explorer James Clark Ross reaches the North Pole.
Samuel Colt invents the revolver.
The population of Chicago is 350.

1834: James Cockrane is born about 1834 in Scotlan Mr. Webster builds the first sawmill near Almon Six Hough families arrive in Almont Almont is organized. The first name is Mia, then Bristol i December 1834. Slavery is abolished throughout the British Empire. 1835: Lapeer County surveyed; (dedicated in 1831). The first passenger railroad line opens in Europe. 1836: Texas defends the Alamo. Almont renamed; the town was called Bristol, after Oliver Bristol, the second settler. It was renamed Newburg in 1836 (later changed to Almont). First plat made of the village of Almont. Arkansas becomes the 25th state of the union. Ralph Waldo Emerson publishes "Nature". The peak year for Michigan fever. 1837: Janette Cockrane is born about 1837 in Scotland. Neil Gray, M.D. marries Maria Webster March 30, 1837. Michigan becomes the 26th state of the union. Chippewa nation treaty gives up land to Michigan. First Canadian railway is constructed. The economic/stock market crashed. Martin Van Buren was president of the U.S. 1837-1841. 1838: The Trail of Tears: Cherokee Nation forced west of the Mississippi. Zadoc Hallock settled half a mile east of the village and cut the first road and took. the first wagon eastward into Berlin Township. Joshua Smith and Thomas Morton settled by the "Red Run". Adam Boles built a grist mill a half mile east of the four corners. Charles Dickens publishes Oliver Twist The vessel Sirius is the first steam ship to cross the Atlantic; the voyage takes fifteen days. First game of baseball occurs in Upper Canada. 1839: David Cochrane comes to America with his ten kids. First bicycle built in Scotland. Photograpy begins with daguerrotype 1840: On March 23, 1840, Mark Braidwood married Mary Blane. 1840 to 1890: lumbering era in Michigan. 1841: Ann Cockrane is born about 1841 in Michigan. Scottish immigrants from Glasgow settled in Berlin Township. Edgar Allan Poe invents the detective story. William Henry Harrison was president of the U.S. in 1841. John Taylor was president of the U.S. 1841 to 1845. 1842: Three brothers (George, Mark, and Alexander Harper (Braidwood) came to America in 1842. John Allan and Janet Gardiner come to the Scotch Settlement in April 1842. Buildings holding the original records of Almont Township burn; all records are lost. John C. Fremont begins mapping the American west in anticipation of westward migration. 1843: Margaret Braidwood, sister of George, Alexander, and Mark Braidwood, came to America Richard Wagner writes the opera "The Flying Dutchman. Soren Kierkegaard publishes several books. Frederick Engels first publishes. 1844: The pioneer William Wallace comes to Michigan. James G. Muir arrives in Michigan with his mother, settles in Pontiac with Squire family. He marries Lodama Squire, the first white child born in Macomb County. Samuel Morse sends first telegraph message. 1845: The United States annexes Texas (the 38th state of the union). Mexico severs relations with the United States. James Polk was president of the U.S. 1845 gto 1849. 1846: Mexican American War starts. December 11: Scotch Settlement Almont Society organized in Bruce Township, Macomb County. Other sources give the date for the Almont Society as 1851. James Thompson donated the town clock and had the town name changed to Almont. U.S declares war on Mexico. 1847: On March 5, 1847, in Romeo Michigan,Alexander Braidwood married Mary Milliken, daughter of John Milliken. Mexican American War ends. Brigham Young and his followers found Mormon settlement in Utah. 1848: In Scotland, Thomas Borland married Janet Wilson, the daughter of David Wilson. Gold discovered in California. Daniel Black builds the first brick house in Almont. Karl Marx and Frederick Engels publish the communist manifesto. 1848: The United States alone has over 700 whaling ships operating in the Pacific Ocean. 1849 to 1850: Zackary Taylor is president of the United States. 1850: David W. Borland is born on a farm near Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, Scotland, on May 11, 1850. California becomes a state. Slave trade ends in Brazil; Atlantic slave trade begins to die out. Australia becomes self-governing. Population of Almont about 1,000. Millard Filmore is president of the U.S. 1850 to 1853. 1851: Napoleon Bonaparte overthrows the French legislative body and dissolves the constitution. Herman Melville publishes Moby Dick. The sewing machine is invented in the United States. 1852: Neil Gray senior dies (1775-1852). David Wallace and Catharine McEwan come to the settlement. Presbyterian Church erected on Scotch Settlement Road, north of the county line, with the cemetery just south of the church. 1853: Thomas Borland and Janet Wilson arrive in Macomb County May 9, 1853 in good health but with little means. David Borland (age three) made the passage with his parents. Franklin Pierce was president of the U.S. 1853 to 1857. 1854: The first pastor, the Rev Andrew Irons arrives in the settlement. Kansas and Nebraska enter the union. 1855: California Gold rush ends. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow completes "The Song of Hiawatha". 1856: James Crawford is married June 28, 1856 to Elizabeth Borland, daughter of Thomas Borland of Scotland. Bessemer invents the process for mass production of steel. 1857: Stock market panic in New York. First passenger elevator invented by Otis in United States. James Buchanan was president of the U.S. 1857 to 1861. 1858: First trans-Atlantic cable laid. The p[opulation of Chicago is 91,000. 1859: First oil well drilled- in Pennsylvania. 1860: Population of Almont about 2,000. America is composed of 18 "free" states and 15 "slave" states. A fire destroys all of Almont's town and school records. 1861: J.B. Hough is war supervisor for the next five years. Almont town and school records lost in a fire Civil War starts. Lincoln elected president 1861 to 1864. Apache uprising beings. 1862: Sioux uprisings begin.


1864: Civil war ends.
President Lincoln is assassinated.

1865: Andrew Jackson was president 1865 to 1869.

1866: Dostoyevsky publishes Crime and Punishment.
Railroad act authorizes appropriation of Native American land by railroad companies.

1867: First typewriter is invented.
United States purchases Alaska from Russia.

1868: Mary Wylie dies in Michigan.
Louisa May Alcott publishes Little Women.

1869: France and England declare war on China.
French occupy Saigon.
1869 to 1877: Ulysses S. Grant was president.

1870: Napoleon defeated; France becomes a republic.

1876: Dr. William B Hamilton completes a history of Almont covering the years 1827 to 1876.
Almont village and township have a total of 162 dwellings, 10 school houses, four churches (one was the Presbyterian in the Scottish Settlement), one bank, one lawyer, two drug stores, three doctors one dentist, three saloons, two barber shops, two grocery stores, and one temperance restaurant.

1882: Hugh Gray dies in Michigan.
Charles Darwin dies April 26, 1882.

1890: Mary (Millikin) Braidwood died in Leonard, Michigan,March 24, 1890.
The entire 1890 federal census is lost in a fire.

1900: Alexander Braidwood dies in Michigan on March 19, 1900.
The brownie camera is invented.

1912: Elizabeth Borland dies August 29, 1912 in Armada, Macomb County, MI.

1925: Flash bulbs are invented.

1941: A fire destroys all records and files of the Almont Herald and Almont times dating back to 1875. Major fire occurred in 1859, 1861, 1866, 1867, and 1874. Schools burned in 1881 and 192?

1942: Color negative flim is invented.

1943: The Presbyterian church is sold and removed from its original location.

1948: Instant pictures (Polaroid Cameras) are invented.

1959: Automatic cameras are invented.

1963: Kodack comes out with the Instamatic camera that uses cartridges instead of film.

2004: Digital cameras outsell film cameras.